What Is Beauty Essay She is so beautiful, the girl said as she gazed in awe- and with a slight trace of jealousy- at the woman walking down the street. Beautiful. What does it mean? Is beauty a synonym for pretty or does it connote something else entirely? Who defines what is beautiful? The definition of beauty has been contended with for centuries and across many continents. Many have concluded that, Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. Although this saying does contain truth, the definition of beauty is more specifically influenced by history, by cultural norms, and by universal standards. Each classification has contributed to the overall definition of beauty. The definition of beauty has been manipulated by history within many different countries. This definition has evolved over time. During the European Renaissance between the 14th and 17th centuries, certain traits such as high foreheads, voluptuous figures, and pale skin were considered beautiful (Sherrow). These traits were considered high class and characteristics of royalty. Mary Queen of Scots doesnt look beautiful to us Beaky nose, beady eyes, small, pursed mouth. Yet in many letter and accounts of the time, she was described as the most beautiful princess in Europe, with glowing details of her amber-colored hair, milky white complexion and so on (Shulman) In distinct contrast to the descriptions defining beauty during the European Renaissance, modern day culture in America dictates beauty defined through slender bodies (Burnell and Gold), tan skin (Donohoe), and youthfulness (Newman). The definition of beauty has continuously developed, and has been directed by evolving history. Beauty during the European Renaissance is a far from the way beauty is defined today. As times change, so does the definition of beauty. Not only has the definition of beauty been persuaded by evolved history, history has influenced the development of modern beauty practices that contribute to the description of beauty. Beauty products and practices have always been used; they have simply progressed in order to fulfill current standards of beauty. The article in Elle Magazine discusses LOreals new book series, which accounts the history of many beauty products and practices. One beauty product that has been developed through the guidance of history, and has influenced the definition of beauty, is foundation. Foundation has been used for centuries. In 200 B. C. Greek and Roman women would apply a powdered white lead to their skin. Although this lead makeup was toxic, it was commonly used until the 1800s. During the Elizabethan-era (1558-1603), women used a cosmetic known as ceruse (composed of white lead and vinegar) to create the ideal of creamy-white looking skin. From the 1920s to the present, foundation has evolved. By 2010, makeup was often enhanced with sunscreen protection and proteins. (Long) For a long period of time, pale looking skin was considered beautiful. As modern society began to recognize the deadly toxins in the lead used in the makeup to achieve this look, new forms of foundation were developed. As history progressed, and society became more aware of health concerns, the definition of beauty was influenced as well. Another example of a beauty practice been influenced by history is hair-dye. The Greco- Roman women first introduced hair-dye in 100 B. C. They would bleach their hair using carbonized beechwood and goat fat. Women with darker hair would use fermented wine to hide their gray hairs. During the 1500s, a strawberry shade known as Venetian blonde was popular in Renaissance Italy. This color was prepared by combining twigs, barley, licorice bark and lemons. In 1909, Eugene Schueller, the founder of LOreal, produced the first commercial synthetic hair dye. This presented a more easily accessible and practical way to dye hair. (Long) History influenced the development of modern beauty practices. As changing historical times influenced the definition of beauty, products and practices that form beauty further developed to resolve modern ideals. The definition of beauty is also influenced by the current events of that specific era. To begin with, historical events influenced the definition of beauty. Depending on what was occurring at that particular point in history influenced the way women interpreted beauty, and functionally described beauty. For instance, during the Colonial Period late 16th century, many Europeans settled in America. When arriving in colonial America, European settlers changed their mode of appearance due to the new way of life. To be specific, many men and women stopped wearing wigs and certain cosmetics that symbolized the despised British Monarchy. The settlers dressed in simpler styles of hair and clothing that reflected the changing attitudes towards a more democratic society (and less class-conscious based). These clothing also enabled them to work more easily. (Sherrow) As times changed, the practical (and sometimes political) definition of beauty was influenced by the events of that time period. Another point in history that had a tremendous influence on the definition of beauty was the 1920s to the early 1930s in Harlem, NY. The Harlem Renaissance celebrated African American beauty in comparison to the constricted European standards. During this movement in the 1920s, black authors praised the African American beauty by comparing their skin colors to cinnamon, honey, ginger and other appealing things (Sherrow). The Black Pride of the 1960s reinforced these ideals in contrast to European ideals that segregated beauty from others cultures. Sherrow) This time period introduced the beauty of other ethnicities and influenced society by widening the definition of beauty. The history of the fashion industry also influences the definition of beauty. Throughout the decades, the fashion industry has had a strong opinion that has impacted societies definition of beauty. As the outlook of the fashion industry transforms, the attitude of society fluctuates as well. To illustrate, Marilyn Monroe famously became the sex symbol of the 1950s. She was a singer, model and dancer who epitomized the definition of beauty at the time (Sherrow). It is amusing that if Marilyn Monroe would walk into Weight Watchers today, no one would bat an eye- theyd sign her up (Newman). During this period in time, an hourglass figure was admired. Later, the 1990s ushered in a whole new beauty aesthetic. Kate Moss was a rule breaking waif and the face of a new age of fashion(Shulman). She was famous for her size zero- an influence to the rest of society. This contrasted to the 1980s when supermodels like Naomi Campbell had the bodies and polished stance that had been so fashionable (Shulman). The change in fashion forcefully influenced the definition of beauty. Each decade had been assigned a unique personality by the fashion world. The standards the fashion world set throughout history have had a tremendous influence on the definition of beauty. In addition to history, another classification that plays an immense role in defining beauty is cultural norms. What is considered beautiful is partly unique to specific cultures. On the reality TV show, The Price of Beauty, Jessica Simpson travels to different countries around the globe to investigate the definition of beauty defined by each culture (Albers). In these cultures there are specific standards of beauty. While in Paris, France, she spoke to women struggling with anorexia. She also interviewed women within the fashion industry about the pressures to maintain a thin silhouette (Albers). The culture pressure in Paris, one of the worldwide capitals of fashion, is one that influences beauty to be defined and dictated by the fashion community. On the other hand, while traveling in Uganda, Simpson noticed that women face a complete opposite issue. In Uganda, not only is a fuller figure more beautiful, it is a symbol of status and a source of pride for men(Albers). Before women get married there are sent to the fattening hut where they are required to consume large quantitates of food in order to gain a sufficient amount of weight. The bride they interviewed drank several jugs of milk (around 5,000 calories) a day, which led who to gain 80 pounds over the course of a couple months. (Albers) The juxtaposition between the culture in France and the culture in Uganda serves as clear evidence that cultural standards have a significant impact on the definition of beauty. What is categorized as beautiful is also defined through specific practices within individual culture. For instance, the Surma and Mursi women of Ethiopia wear large lip plates in order to stretch out their lips (Saad). The size of the plates indicates levels of status. Another example is the Kareni and Padaung women of Myanmar who use metal rings to elongate their neck and raise their chin. The elongated neck resulting of this practice is viewed as the ideal beauty. (Saad) While each one of these practices would be considered foreign and outlandish to many societies, they are a precise definition of what is considered beautiful in these unique cultures. Cultural practices clearly contribute to the overall definition of beauty. Furthermore, within a specific culture, there are distinctive descriptions of beauty. The fashion industry and the media promote very definite standards of beauty. For me, beauty demands a kind of originality that makes you stop and look again. Francis Bacon, the 16th century philosopher, put it this way: There is no excellent beauty that hath not some strangeness in the proportion. (Shulman) This quote describes the basic philosophy of the high fashion industry. The fashion industry does not define beauty through proportional, standard features- this world is interested in different, exotic and unique features that stand out. Along with the trends in the fashion industry, the media also tends to promote a specific definition of beauty. The media tends to focus on defining beauty as thin and fat free, leading to many problems revolving around negative body image. The National Eating Disorders Association states that 81% of 10-yr-olds are afraid of being fat (Brunell and Gold). The fashion industry and the media represent one portion of a culture. They are businesses and industries that dictate very specific opinions that will benefit their purpose. In comparison to the fashion industry and media, the definition of beauty amongst the average population within America differs. Contrary to the fashion worlds opinion, the average American public has an entirely different approach to beauty. Judith Langlois, professor of psychology at the University of Texas composed a study to determine facial attractiveness. College students rated a collection of photographs of faces that would be used in this study as attractive or unattractive. The factor that determined attractiveness was the symmetry and proportions of the face. The more average and positional the facial features were, the more attractive the photo was rated. (Newman) In comparison to the criteria of beauty in the high fashion industry, this is completely hypocritical. Within the population of a culture, the definition of beauty may vary. Similarly, the image the media projects are not considered beautiful across the board. The average American women is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 140 pounds, according to the National eating Disorders Association. That adds to a body mass index (BMI), the standard measurement of doctors and nutritionists or assessing healthy body size, of approximately 24 when calculated using CDC standards. A normal BMI falls between 18. 5 and 24. 9, according to the CDC. (Brunell and Gold) At 5 foot 4 inches, weighing 140 pounds, many women would consider themselves beautiful. Compared to Angelina Jolie- the epitome what the media presents as beautiful- these numbers are very high. She measures at 5 feet inches tall and weighs approximately 105 pounds: Jolies BMI would be at about 16, and she would be considered underweight. Michael Cunningham, a professor and psychologist at the University of Louisville comments: Now the average voluptuous five-foot-four women may feel inadequate, especially when she compares herself to the celebrities on screen and in beauty magazines. (Brunell and Gold) What is considered average, and no less beautiful, in one part of Americas culture is vastly incongruent with another percentage of the society. Not only is the definition of beauty influenced by history, and by cultural norms, it is also influenced by universal standards. One of the universal standards is the biological influence that serves as contribution to the definition of beauty. To be specific, in all cultures, symmetric faces are interpreted as more beautiful than asymmetric faces. You can visit the Bedouins in the Middle East, the Yanomamo in the Amazon, and the Inuits in the Canadian north, and the will all agree who is beautiful based on facial features(Saad). In Langlois study, she tested babies by showing them the photos selected by college students, and then timed how long the baby would gaze at each picture. At the end of the study, she concluded that the baby was more likely to stare longer at the attractive people in the photos. What is attractive? It is a symmetrical face. People with symmetrical and averaged proportions are more pleasant to look at (Newman). Gad Saad, an evolutionary behavioral scientist, explains that due to the insufficient cognitive development of the baby, and therefore the inability to be socially influenced, this reaction is biologically programmed. People are universally, biologically inclined towards symmetrical faces. Don Symons, an anthropologist at University of California at Santa Barbara concurs: Beauty is not whimsical. Beauty has meaning. Beauty is functional. He argues that beauty is not only in the eyes of the beholder, but also in the brain circuitry of the beholder. (Newman) The definition of beauty is universally distinguished through biological instinct. Studies by psychologists Victor Johnson of New Mexico State University, and David Perrett of St. Andrews University in Scotland, show that men consistently show preference for women with larger eyes, fuller lips and a smaller nose and chin. Symons explains that all these traits symbolize youth, fertility and good health. (Newman) This form of beauty is universal due to the biological implications. Across the globe, men will biologically gravitate towards specific traits that symbolize the ability to reproduce. Beauty is health. Its a buildboard saying: I am healthy and I can pass on your genes, a psychologist says (Newman). Although biology is not everything, it does play a significant role in determining what is categorized as universally beautiful. There are also non-physical definitions of beauty that are universal throughout. The emphasis on specific forms of beauty transcends acquiring a certain look. Cleise Gomes is a native of Brazil and founder and owner of Cleise Brazilian Day Spa in Chicago. Gomes remarks, In Brazil our concept of beauty is relative to the whole body and mind. There need to be a balance. We all see people who are striking on the outside, but as they reveal themselves, our perception changes. In the long run, the inner beauty wins out since outer beauty will fade. (Brunell and Gold) Jaclyn Siegel, a girl who struggles with body image agrees: Beauty is not a surface thing. Its not physical. It is definitely more inside than out. A beautiful person is someone who is caring, kind, thinks of others and has a positive outlook on life (Brunell and Gold). Through her individual struggle with body image, and her road to recovery from bulimia, she was able to come to the conclusion that beauty is more than skin deep. Personality traits affect the way one is perceived. A perfect physiognomy can be ugly if a person exhibits arrogance Conversely, physically unattractive individuals with warm and outgoing personalities can appear beautiful (Donohoe). Gomes and Seigel both describe the importance of this form of beauty. Just as the definition of beauty is influenced by universal standards, the quest to obtain beauty is universal. The amount of money spent on beauty, beauty products and more serves as indisputable proof that the pursuit to attain beauty is universal. In the United States last year, people spent six billion on fragrances and another six billion on make-up. Hair and skin-care products drew eight million dollars each, which fingernail items alone accounted for a billion. In the mania to loose weight 20 billion was spent on diet products and services- in addition to the billions that were spent on health clubs and plastic surgery. (Newman) Around the globe, a tremendous amount of time and money is spent to achieve the desired form of beauty. Throughout the world, women search to obtain beauty. Depending on the specific culture, there might be a different focus of what is considered worthy of achieving, but the quest to obtain that beauty is universal. A world famous plastic surgeon, Dr. Ivo Pitanguy says that in Brazil, women get liposuction at 18 and breast reduction at 16-22 years old. Brazilian women prefer smaller breasts and bigger derrieres, whereas in America a breast augmentation in more common (Newman). Though the specific standard of what is considered beautiful is different between the two countries, the demand to attain the desired beauty is universal. Not only will people around the world do almost anything to obtain beauty, the cost of obtaining beauty globally has gone far beyond financial concerns. One specific example is the rise in eating disorders worldwide. Because societies around the world today, mostly influenced by the media and the fashion industry, have promoted thin as beautiful, many women feel a pressure reach a certain number on the scale in order to be classified as beautiful. In Japan anorexia was first documented in the 1960s. It now affects an estimated one in one hundred Japanese women and has spread to parts of Asia including Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong. In the U. S. , according to Menniger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas, the proportion of females affected by eating disorders is around 5 to 10 percent. (Newman) People will harm their bodies and themselves in order to achieve the ideal form of beauty. Another example of the acts that are committed to obtain beauty is the use of hazardous beauty products. The search for beauty could be deadly. Vermilion rouge used in the 18th century was made of a sulfur and mercury compound. Men and women used at the peril of lost teeth and inflamed gums. They sickened, sometimes died, from the lead in the white powder they dusted on their faces. In the 19th century women wore whalebone and steel corsets that made it difficult to breathe, a precursor of the stomach-smooshing Playtex Living Girdle. (Newman) Throughout history, people took part in beauty practices that would cause disease, illness and suffering in order to conform to a desired fashion of beauty. Throughout history, and across the world, there is an intense desire to be beautiful. The ultimate description of beauty is highly intricate and immensely complicated to describe. This definition has been in the making for hundreds of years and is influenced by history, by cultural norms and by universal standards that each has a unique affect on the definition. One person, one thing, or one place does not define beauty. As she watched the women disappear around the corner, she realized that she too was beautiful.
Course Name Student name: |Assessment No: |Module Level: |Module Tutor: | |Cristina, Selam and Sofia |1 of 2 |5 |Birte Schmitz | |Module: Principles of Tourism Planning |Assessment Method: |Weighting: |Date of submission: | |and Development | | | | | |Group Executive Summary and |50% (25% executive summary and |As per AR1 | | |Presentation |25% presentation) | | |Length: |20 minutes for the presentation | | |2000 words plus tables and charts (10-12 pages executive summary) | |Learning outcomes assessed: |Assess the impacts of tourism planning. | | |Assess the limitations of tourism planning. | |Identify the various stages of the planning process | |Skills Mapped: |Group working | | |Research Strategy | | |Creative & innovative thinking | Feedback |Assessment Criteria |Weight |Strength |Areas of Improvement | |% | | | |Conduct a stakeholder analysis |30 | | | |discuss how your proposed product | | | | |may positively & negatively affect | | | | |their lives within the country. | | | | |How might any negative impacts be minimised? | | | |Highlight the positive and negative |30 | | | |socio-cultural, environmental | | | | |and economic impacts of | | | | |developing your product. | | | | |Work effectively as part of a team. 10 | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Hand in a well written executive summary, which is |10 | | | |spell checked, referenced within the text, has a | | | | |biography and does not include poor grammar. Marks | | | | |will be deducted otherwise. | | | | |Self Presentation â€“ please see hand in guidelines. 20 | | | |Marks will be deducted for poor report format, | | | | |spelling & grammar, lack of in-text referencing and | | | | |incorrectly formatted bibliography | | | | |Deductions: Late Submission | | | | |Deductions : No Front Sheet | | | | |Total mark out of 100% | | | | Subject to ratification at the validating University Subject Board Community-based Ecotourism Project in Deme village in Ghana [pic] Cristina Aldea, Selam Misghina and Sofia Whyte Summary This report analyses the development plan of a community-based tourism product of a village in Ghana. It provides a brief description of the chosen site; mid and long term development plans and impacts. It also conducts a stakeholderâ€™s analysis and highlights strategies to ensure sustainability, cooperation with local government and indicates how demonstration effects may be minimised. List of contents 1. Introductionâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. pg. 3 2. Mid and long term development plansâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ pg. 6 1. Table: Mid term development plansâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. pg. 6 2. 2 Table: Long term development plansâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. â€¦pg. 7 3. Impactsâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ pg. 7 4. Model approach to sustainable tourism productâ€¦â€¦ pg. 8 5. Strategies to ensure sustainabilityâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦ pg. 9 1. Table: Highlighted strategiesâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. â€¦â€¦. pg. 10 6. Stakeholder analysisâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. pg. 10 7. Strategies to ensure cooperation with the local governmentâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. pg. 1 1. Human Resources in tourism developmentâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. â€¦pg. 12 2. Education and trainingâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. pg. 12 8. Avoiding demonstration effectsâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦. â€¦pg. 13 9. Conclusionâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. â€¦.. pg. 14 Bibliographyâ€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.. pg. 15 1. Introduction Ghana is a country in West Africa with a population of 21 million people, and often labelled â€œAfrica for beginnersâ€, home to a number of diverse people and cultures, all finding ways to live together in a rapidly developing and modernizing country. (Lonely Planet). Fig. 1: Map of Ghana [pic] Source: AddictedtoTravel, 2009 Volta Region is situated in the East part of Ghana. Highlights of this region are the massive man-made Volta Lake, the largest in the world and the tallest mountain in West Africa, Mount Afadjato (885m). (Addictedtotravel, 2009). The Hohoe (ho-we) District is one of the 17 districts of Volta Region in Ghana and was created in 1979 and the major ethnic groups here are Ewes, Akpafu/Lolobi, Santrokofi, Likpe, Logba, Tafi and Nyagbo, with a population of around 144,500, in 2000. The total number of households in the Hohoe stands at 32844, with 7172 living in the urban area whiles the rest of 25672 live in the rural area. (Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, Ghana and Maks Publications & Media Services, 2006). Fig. 2: Hohoe in Ghana [pic] Source: Hebert, 2009. Deme village is the chosen site for the development of this community-based tourism project and is located in Hohoe District. The area is surrounded by tropical forest, home for different amazing species of monkeys, exotic birds, bucks and buffalos. The wonderful diversity of nature is not the main attraction here, the historical heritage and vibrant cultural identity is instead. Every year in November there is the celebration of the Gbidokor Festival of the Gbi-Ewes, where chiefs of the two tribes, the Gbi and the Ewe, wearing traditional colourful costumes are carried in palanquins, surrounded by drumming and dances of the local people. The population of this village is part of Ewe ethnic group, and the majority of people speak Ewe language, and the majority of the youngsters speaking English as well. (Ghana Tourism Board, 2008). Fig 3: Deme village in Hohoe, Ghana [pic] Source: fallingrain. com, 2009 This project seeks to help the people of Deme village to generate income from tourism in order to alleviate the poverty level of their community, to provide basic facilities for living conditions, to educate and encourage the locals to preserve the natural resources and endangered animal species and to promote the unique culture and traditions of the Ewe tribe that most of the locals belong to. The current tourism provision in Deme village is inexistent, but the tourism statistics of the Hohoe area show that an increasing number of visitors are becoming interested in the natural and cultural beauty of this district. Touristy attractions that are close to Deme, such as Tafi-Atome Monkey Sanctuary and Mole National Park registered a number of approximately 97,129 arrivals in 2007. (Ghana Tourism Board, 2009). 1. Mid and long term development plans The idea of this community-based ecotourism project is to create a place where tourists can experience real rural African village life by staying in the village itself and taking part in its daily activities and traditions. Table 2. 1: Mid term development plans (2010-2015) |Introducing the idea of developing eco-tourism to the local people. |Educating local people to come in contact with tourists, to take pride in their culture and traditions, even though| |the economic resources are limited. | |Come in contact with the local government and try to obtain funding and their involvement. | |Building an eco-lodge to accommodate tourists (10 basic huts), toilets, a small eating place; electricity | |facilities, clean drinking water and first aid care are also priorities. | |Organising volunteering placements programmes for people who would like to get involved in this project (such as | |students, teachers). | |Creating a community fund and raise awareness of the programme in order to obtain sponsorships (from charity | |foundations, Ghana Tourism Board). |Come in contact with niche travel agents and the Regional and National Tourism Boards in order to promote the | |tourism product, such as Jolinaiko Eco Tours and Ghana Tourism Board. | |Create community experiences that tourists can take part when visiting the village (ex. : fishing with the locals, | |learning how to weave a mat or a basket, learn the dancing moves of the Ewe tribe, meeting the storyteller of the | |village, etc. ). | (Jolinaiko Eco Tours, 2009). Table 2. 2: Long term development plans (2015-2020) |Maintain the tourism product authentic and sustainable and try to minimise the negative impacts, if these occur. | |Introduce other community experiences, such as excursions. |Building a community centre and a school in the village. | 2. Impacts Tourism, as a form of human activity, takes place in an environment, which is made up of both human and natural factors, and can have major impacts. Impacts can be positive or/and negative, and are usually referred as economic, environmental and socio-cultural. (Mason, 2003). The development of the community-based ecotourism project of Deme village can trigger a series of impacts. Economic impacts include: â€¢ Reduce the poverty level of the community through generating jobs for the locals (also avoid money leakage). â€¢ Contribution to the community development. â€¢ Over-dependence on tourism. Socio-cultural impacts, according Burns and Holden (1995, cited in Mason, 2003), â€œare greatest when there is a large contrast between the culture of the receiving society and the origin cultureâ€, and these are: â€¢ Preserve the traditional cultural activities of the Ewe tribe and the unique lifestyle â€¢ Educating the local people (regarding taking pride in teaching their culture and traditions and act as hosts to visitors; the income earned by the locals through tourism is used to send their children to school) â€¢ Avoid migration of the local youngsters in order to preserve the unique culture and customs and transmit it from generation to generation (through generating jobs and a higher quality of life) â€¢ Overcrowding (causing stress for both visitors and locals) â€¢ Demonstration effects (behavioural changes of the local people through observing the behaviour of the tourists and wanting to adopt it). Environmental impacts include: â€¢ Educate the locals to act in consideration with preserving the natural environment and the endangered species of animals â€¢ Pollution (air pollution, solid waste, litter, noise) â€¢ Damage or/and disturbance of wildlife habitats â€¢ Over-fishing (community experiences include fishing with the locals in the Volta Lake) â€¢ Footpath erosion In order to reduce some of the negative impacts listed above, the tourism product needs to be sustainable developed. (Mason, 2003). 4. Model approach to sustainable tourism product The sustainable development strategy is defined by Brundtland (WCED 1987 p. 49 cited in Hall, 2008) as â€œsustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsâ€. The ecotourism project of Deme has been planned having sustainability and minimizing the possibly negative impacts as the main concern. It is vital for this poor community that tourism activity is planned sustainable. The development plan was made following the community approach of Murphy (1985, cited in Hall, 2008), who promotes â€œthe use of an ecological approach to tourism planning that emphasised the need for local control over the development processâ€. So, the local people are at the centre of this small scale tourism project, which directly benefit from it, and the environment will be slightly modified and preserved. There will be a small number of tourists visiting that will be accommodated in 10 basic clay-made huts, an eating place serving traditional food (fish, cassava and mango dishes, using local products). Tourists can come in contact with unique experiences that involve the locals: learning how to weave a basket or a mat out of reed, learning the Ewe tribe dancing moves, go fishing with a local fisherman, and enjoy a meal with a local family. This approach will ensure that both the tourists and the locals gain a high level of satisfaction, poverty is eradicated and tourism in Deme is sustainable. (Hall, 2008). 5. Strategies to ensure sustainability To ensure sustainability there must be strategies because sustainability in tourism development is really important. Sustainability strategy has to connect with all stakeholders in the tourism planning so the developed tourism can have a future. The sustainable development has to guarantee that the natural, cultural and all other resources of tourism are preserved for stable use in the future, at the same time as bringing benefits to the local community. (Inskeep, 1994). Table 5. 1: Highlighted strategies: |Save energy by reduce emission through renewable energy sources. |Encourage efficient use of natural and local resources. | |Support the sustainable use of land. | |Protect and develop biodiversity. | |Constantly informing the visitors. | |Encourage environmental education and community involvement | 6. Stakeholders analysis According to Hall (2008), stakeholders are â€œindividuals, groups or/and organisations with an interest on an issue, problem or outcome that are directly influenced or affected by the actions or non-actions taken by others to resolve the problem or issueâ€. Stakeholders in Deme are people with an interest and directly involved in the tourism activity of the village. They are: the local community (fishermen, the boat makers, the eating place owner, the traditional ewe-an crafts vendors, the local tourist guides, the youngsters of the village), Ghana Tourism Board, the local and national government and the travel agent that will market the tourism product and will make the bookings. The local community is the main stakeholder involved in this tourism project, because the tourism product offered is local community experiences, which means that everybody is involved. Directly earning income from this tourism project will be: the locals working on building the facilities for accommodating tourists, the locals taking part in teaching the tourists about the customs and traditions of the Ewe tribe (basket weavers, the dancers), fishermen that will supply the eating place, and will also act as tourist guides, the boat makers. The youngsters of the village will benefit indirectly through educational programmes that will teach them about sustainable tourism and how to protect the environment and their local traditions and culture. This tourism project will positively affect and change the lives of the locals. Negative impacts might be over-dependence on tourism and tourism activity not constant. This is why the planning process needs to take into consideration these aspects and make sure the influx of tourists is constant. Ghana Tourism Board will benefit through internationally raising awareness on tourism business in Ghana, the local/national government through taxes from the tourists/ taxes from the locals. This tourism product will be sold to the tourists through an independent niche travel agent who will benefit and make profit from the tourists that will book their holidays with them. (Hall and Richards, 2003). 7. Strategies to ensure cooperation with the local government The regulation of tourist development is determined by policies, which together inform an overall set of planning principles for the area being planned. The determination of these policies is based on several considerations. Thus, the form which tourism planning takes will be influenced by general government policies and private sector policies. Cited in Elm Publications (2002) page: 6-1 Ghanaâ€™s government has a role to play in formulating appropriate policies and strategies for human resource development in tourism. Support for continental and regional structures are part of this, but it is also necessary to encourage private initiatives and, in particular, Ghanaian entrepreneurs. Properly conceived, government interventions in the tourism sector can play an important catalytic role. It is important, for example, to create institutional mechanisms that bring together governments and private entrepreneurs, thus avoiding damage that may be caused if they work at cross purposes. Cited in CABI (2001) page: 73 The problems in Ghanaâ€™s tourism are closely related to structural imbalances in its overall development pattern. There are no clear strategies for development in general or for tourism in particular, and tourism has not been integrated with other economic sectors. The economic crisis and the need to provide more employment compel governments to speed up replacement of expatriate senior staff by nationals. Cited in CABI (2001) page: 66, 68 7. 1 Human Resource (HR) in tourism development HR development in tourism is aimed at reducing dependence on import personnel and replacing them with workers from local areas. This requires an understanding of the market for labour in the tourism industry, and an awareness of quantitative and qualitative requirements of the industry. Cited in CABI (2001) page: 68, 72 7. 2 Education and Training It is important to emphasize in Ghanaian tourism, cooperation is especially urgent in education and training, as well as in a wide range of skills, including management and information technology. This should not be confined to the formal education system. While formal training is obviously important, it may often be more beneficial and most cost-effective, in practice, to focus on informal training, either on the job or through programmes carefully tailored to meet defined objectives and targeted at specific types of individuals. Cited in CABI (2001) page: 73 8. Avoiding demonstration effects Demonstration effect is seen as a socio-cultural impact regarding the tourism activity and is referred to as the behavioural changes in the resident population when coming in contact with tourists. The impacts are greater when the culture of the host community and the tourists is very different. This situation can have negative effects especially on the young host community who becomes resentful because they are unable to obtain the goods and lifestyle demonstrated by the visitors. (Burns and Holden, 1995). The demonstration effect may encourage youngsters to migrate from rural areas in search for the lifestyle from urban areas â€œdemonstratedâ€ by the tourists. (Mason, 2003). Demonstration effects in Deme village will be minimal because this is a small-scale project and the number of tourists visiting the area will be controlled by the travel agent involved in this project. Anyhow, the demonstration effect involves the individual perception of the locals upon the touristsâ€™ behaviour and it is not something that can be measured and totally controlled. This could be minimal if locals are taught about the important value of their culture and that they should be proud of being part of the unique environment that surrounds them, and also the effects of globalization. Educational programmes should help minimise demonstration effects, together with sustainable development. (Mason, 2003). 9. Conclusion This case study report has analysed the development plan of a community-based ecotourism project in Ghana. The development plan of Deme village has been conducted having the community as the main resource for tourism. The local people are involved in all aspects of tourism activity in order to break the poverty barriers that enable the community to have a decent lifestyle. 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